One Python Development Setup to Rule Them All

Well, not quite. But here’s what I’ve settled on after working with Python constantly since 2012.

Virtualenv and Python version management

pyenv. I consider this the best as I can install and switch between any Python version (including conda) I like with ease. If you need this functionality and you’re not using pyenv, you’re missing out.

Installing Packages & managing their versions

I use pip. New tools have waded-in in recent years, but pip works for me and is still the most widely used tool.

Along with pip, I use requirements.txt (with fixed versions if it’s an application repo, supported version ranges if it’s a package/shared library project). I use requirements-dev.txt to hold development/test packages.

Releasing Packages

I use zest.releaser. This takes the pain out of releasing packages, automating the version number bumping, HISTORY updates, tagging etc.

IDE Setup

I use VSCode, because it’s fast and easy to use from day one.
I use an array of extensions. One, in particular, makes this choice a no brainer.

  • Settings Sync” this keeps your editor config in the ‘cloud’ meaning you can log in to any computer and sync that VSCode installation and you’re good to go in seconds.

I use the built-in terminal emulator within VSCode, along with Fish shell. I use Fish for its intelligent tab completion.


I use pytest for all Python unit and integration tests. It’s the industry standard right now and much better than the alternatives (nose, unittest).

To save a huge amount of time while doing TDD I use this tool avoid switching around my development environment.

That’s it, it’s quite boring but has stood the test of time. I hope this is useful to someone, if you have any suggested improvements please comment below, or Tweet me!

Supercharge your Python testing workflow

When writing unit tests in Python you may find yourself switching back and forth between your code editor window and terminal to re-run your tests.

You can avoid this by using using inotify. In short it can re-run your tests when you change any Python files in your project. Here are some little scripts to help you do that.

First install:

sudo apt install -y inotify-tools

If you’re using bash, add this to your ~/.bashrc and restart your terminal:

function ptw() {
    pytest $1
    while find -name "*.py" | inotifywait -e close_write --fromfile - ;
        do pytest $1

If you’re using Fish, add to ~/.config/fish/ and restart your terminal:

function ptw
    pytest $argv
    while find -name "*.py" | inotifywait -e close_write --fromfile - ;
        pytest $argv

Now instead of running your tests like:


Just do:


When the tests finish you’ll see the process does not exit, and when you edit a .py file in your project the tests will automatically re-run.

This saves a tonne of time, enjoy.

Fix: apt-get update hanging within Ubuntu Docker container

I experienced this issue in a Docker container, hanging at this point:

Step 5/24 : RUN apt-get update && apt-get install -y --no-install-recommends         cuda-cudart-$CUDA_PKG_VERSION         cuda-compat-10-1 &&     ln -s cuda-10.1 /usr/local/cuda &&     rm -rf /var/lib/apt/lists/*
 ---> Running in 3cb10279744e
Ign:1 stretch InRelease
Get:2 stretch/updates InRelease [94.3 kB]
Get:3 stretch-updates InRelease [91.0 kB]
Get:4 stretch Release [118 kB]
Get:5 stretch Release.gpg [2434 B]
Get:6 stretch-updates/main amd64 Packages [11.1 kB]
Get:7 stretch/updates/main amd64 Packages [485 kB]
Get:8 stretch/main amd64 Packages [7084 kB]

Strace showed it waiting on data from a socket:

$ ps -faux|less|grep docker-compose
testuser  8098  0.4  0.4 115644 39016 pts/0    S+   08:56   0:00  |                   \_ /usr/bin/python3 /usr/local/bin/docker-compose build app
testuser  8402  0.0  0.0  13136  1084 pts/1    S+   08:59   0:00              \_ grep docker-compose
$ sudo strace -fp 8098
strace: Process 8098 attached

I narrowed down the issue to a https apt sources.list entry I had added and the fix was to install the following packages before that sources update:

apt-get install -y --no-install-recommends gnupg2 curl ca-certificates apt-transport-https

How to use ipdb with docker-compose

Sometimes there may be in issue you need to debug which only occurs within a Docker container. However by default ipdb.set_trace() won’t work. Here’s how to get it working.

Enable interactive mode by adding stdin_open and tty the following to your docker-compose.yml. For example:

version: "3"
    build: .
    stdin_open: true
    tty: true
    command: ./

Now when you run your tests (docker-compose run app_tests) the terminal will stop at your break point.

Attach your local to the container. In another terminal window run docker attach <container_id> which will bring up the ipdb interactive session in your terminal.

How to use localstack with Gitlab CI

If you’re using a standard style .gitlab-ci.yml format such as the below, it won’t work.

image: ubuntu

  - localstack/localstack:latest

  DEFAULT_REGION: eu-west-1
  AWS_ACCESS_KEY_ID: localkey
  AWS_SECRET_ACCESS_KEY: localsecret
  HOSTNAME: localstack

    - pip install awscli
    - aws s3api list-buckets --endpoint-url=http://localstack:4572
Could not connect to the endpoint URL: "http://localstack:4572/"
ERROR: Job failed: exit code 1

However if you use build stages instead as below, it will work.

  - test

  stage: test
  image: ubuntu
    SERVICES: s3:4572
    HOSTNAME_EXTERNAL: localstack 
    DEFAULT_REGION: eu-west-1
    AWS_ACCESS_KEY_ID: localkey
    AWS_SECRET_ACCESS_KEY: localsecret
    - name: localstack/localstack
      alias: localstack
    - pip install awscli
    - aws s3api list-buckets --endpoint-url=http://localstack:4572
    "Buckets": [],
    "Owner": {
        "DisplayName": "webfile",
        "ID": "bcaf1ffd86f41161ca5fb16fd081034f"
Job succeeded

Working in Nuremberg, Germany – a retrospective

Mid November 2018 I decided I had grown tired of working in London so decided to make a change. A job offer appeared in my Inbox for a position at a large company based in Nuremberg, Germany. With very little research I decided to go for it.

Work wise it was an interesting project with great people, here are my general observations from my time there.

The People

Germans are somewhat more reserved than people in the UK.

However in the work environment they will get right to the point, no politely dodging around a painful subject like in the UK. This seems rude at first but it’s definitely more efficient and refreshing after a while.

There is a large immigration population in Nuremberg, mostly from Turkey from what I’ve seen. Most seem to assimilate well, starting up small businesses around the City.


Turns out I moved to Germany around the time of the worst possible weather. Sideways freezing rain for weeks on end makes you appreciate the “warm” smog bubble of London a little more.


Businesses such as supermarkets close much earlier in Nuremberg. There are no 24 hour stores anywhere and on Sundays everything is closed.

There are few if any grocery delivery services. This really makes you appreciate the Ocado/Tesco/etc services in throughout the UK.


Parking is limited in Nuremberg, as is the enforcement of illegal parking. On every inch of kerb in the populated areas you’ll likely find a car carelessly parked at an interesting angle.

On the plus side, where real parking spaces are found they are much wider than those in the UK. (Thank you German automotive industry).

Driving Style

In the city in Germany, just as in other cities such as London there’s the usual aggressive driving style you’d expect. However on the motorways/autobahn the style differs significantly to that of the UK.

  • People keep to the slower lanes when not overtaking (this never happens in the UK).
  • It’s not unusual to be driving at 155 mph and have another car breeze past you.
  • Motorways in Germany are of a higher quality, holding much less standing water in the rain.
  • Unlike the UK, when it’s raining people don’t forget how to drive. 95 mph in heavy rain seems normal in Germany.

Cash Obsession

In London I was accustomed to using debit card for all transportation and contact-less for most purchases.

In Nuremberg however there seems to be an obsession with holding cash in your hand. The only places that seemed to take card were large supermarkets. All bars would only accept cash, I couldn’t find a reason for this, it’s either cultural or for money laundering purposes.

Work/life balance

Nuremberg is a clear winner in this respect. Even though I was working at a large organization I saw the following working hours patterns.

Monday – Thursday: 8:30am – 4:30pm

Friday: 8:30am – 3pm

While in London… well I’ll just quote the CEO of a company I recently worked with:

Work starts sometime before 9am and ends sometime after 6pm.

Clearly madness, especially for Software Engineers.

Interestingly with the shorter hours in Germany I found my productivity sky-rocket. I was doing more work in a shorter time and felt refreshed every morning. If only companies in London would learn ;)

In conclusion – London suits myself much better and as I sit on this train returning to the Land of Smog, on arrival I’ll have a new appreciation for the infrastructure and attractions at my disposal 24/7.

Everything guide for the privacy conscious

In 2019 most people’s data is held across cloud providers, free to be sold or subpoenaed at any time.

Here are my personal choices to limit this, be it in vain or not it helps me sleep better at night.


Use Proton Mail, emails are decrypted in the browser using your key (password). iOS & Android apps.

Downsides: Limited features, apps only allow single user login at once.

File syncing

Use Tresorit, end-to-end encrypted. Unlike similar services this one has a decent mobile app for iOS and Android devices so you can sync & backup your Photos automatically.

Calendar syncing

Use a self-hosted Next Cloud running with the Calendar app enabled. This will give you a CalDAV server which most Calendar applications can sync with.

Note taking

Use Standard Notes, end-to-end encrypted syncing with apps for Mac, Windows, Linux, iOS, Android.


If you don’t want to host your own VPN then use iPredator. Founded by Peter Sunde this is the only provider I would consider trusting.

If you’d like to host your own, use Algo.

Password management

Use LastPass, end-to-end encrypted with plugins for Firefox, Chrome & Android.

Instant messaging

Use Signal, end-to-end encrypted by default, unlike other services.

Do you have any better suggestions for the above? Comment below!

2017 Macbook Pro vs Lenovo X1 Carbon

I’ve been using a latest model Macbook Pro for the last 6 months or so now and have recently got my hands on a Lenovo X1 Carbon (6th gen). So here’s a comparison of the two from a software engineering perspective.

Macbook Pro specification:

  • 3.5GHz Intel i7 CPU
  • 16GB RAM
  • 1TB SSD
  • 13in screen (retina)
  • Priced around £2800

X1 Carbon specification:

  • Intel Core i7-8650U Processor (8MB Cache, up to 4.2GHz)
  • 16GB RAM
  • 1TB SSD
  • 14in screen (HDR)
  • Priced around £2600

The main worry I had with the X1 Carbon was that the screen wouldn’t have the vibrant brightness of the Mac. However I was pleased to find the X1 screen brightness matches that of the Mac.

The Mac keyboard was a true pain point. Every couple of days a random key would just stop functioning. This is clearly a design flaw, with small amounts of dust under the keys causing them to not work. Apple posted this “fix” for the issue which works but is a chore to keep blasting the keyboard to keep it working,

The X1 Carbon keyboard on the other hand has been a dream to work with. The keys are much more raised up than those of the Mac which feels nicer to type on. It’s also better to have a REAL “Esc” key to reach for, which is missing from the Mac as it’s now built into the touch-bar.

Ports. The Mac has a headphone jack along with a bunch of USB-C ports which forced me to spend on additional adapters. The X1 Carbon comes with USB, USB-C, HDMI, headphone jack and an SD card slot on the back. Enough said.

Cooling. The Mac external design looks great, but it lacks some good ventilation. Under high load the base of the Aluminum case can get quite hot — not good when you’re not using the laptop on a desk. The X1 Carbon has some big beefy vents on the side which seem to do a good job — just be careful not to place your fingers over the vents as they chuck out the hot air.

Overall. Both are great laptops, but due to the ports issue (which Apple are taking the piss with) along with the broken keyboard design means I’m going to make the X1 Carbon my primary laptop going forward.

Hopefully this was useful to someone. Post a comment below if you have any experience with either laptop.

How to migrate from multi-version Python Travis-CI builds to Gitlab CI

With Travis-CI you can setup a CI build to run against multiple Python versions fairly easily.


sudo: false
language: python
    - 2.7
    - 3.6
  - TOXENV=py-normal
install: pip install tox
script: tox


envlist = py{27,36}-normal

commands =

deps =

You can achieve something similar with Gitlab CI through the following .gitlab-ci.yml configuration. Your tox.ini can remain the same.

  # Install pyenv
  - apt-get update
  - apt-get install -y make build-essential libssl-dev zlib1g-dev libbz2-dev libreadline-dev libsqlite3-dev wget curl llvm libncurses5-dev libncursesw5-dev xz-utils tk-dev
  - git clone ~/.pyenv
  - export PYENV_ROOT="$HOME/.pyenv"
  - export PATH="$PYENV_ROOT/bin:$PATH"
  - eval "$(pyenv init -)"
  # Install tox
  - pip install tox

  - pyenv install 2.7.14
  - pyenv shell 2.7.14
  - tox -e py27-normal

  - pyenv install 3.6.4
  - pyenv shell 3.6.4
  - tox -e py36-normal

The only downside with this is the extra time it takes to install pyenv and the interpreter of choice. A small price to pay to free your project from Github ;)